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Bile is one of the most powerful roles in the process of digestion. First of all, it emulsifies fats and provides normal absorption of fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. In addition, through the common bile duct into the duodenum receives digestive enzymes of the pancreas, so the disruption of the biliary tract is reflected by a complex gastro-intestinal problems.
What in essence is a biliary dyskinesia? This is a functional disease that is associated with obstructed bile and pancreatic (pancreatic) enzymes to its destination - the duodenum. The fact that the timely flow of bile into the intestine is carried out through the coordinated work of smooth muscle, located deep in the bile ducts. Muscle elements are presented as longitudinal fibers and to ensure the promotion of bile, and cross-regulating the amount of its income in the alimentary canal. The failure of smooth muscle leads to either inadequate or excessive activity of the gall bladder and ducts. In the first case we speak of dyskinesia in hypokinetic type, in the second - by a hyperkinetic. Causes of biliary dyskinesia may be different: the psycho-emotional stress, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (especially the liver, gall bladder and pancreas), gross violations of human nutrition, helminth infections and others are more prone to the development of motor disorders in zhelchevynosyaschih ducts patients suffering from allergic diseases, neurosis, vegetative-vascular dystonia, various hormonal changes, etc. In this regard, gastroenterologists isolated primary dyskinesia, when the pathology is developing on the background of disorders of the nervous or hormonal regulation of biliary excretion, and the secondary, where the biliary tract dysmotility is a consequence of other pathologies in the body. Sometimes clearly differentiate primary from secondary disease is not possible.
Main clinical symptom of biliary dyskinesia is a pain that occurs in the right hypochondrium.When dysmotility, greater reliance on hypokinetic variant, there is a pain pulling character, Moderate, but almost never-ending (which is connected with a permanent extension of the walls of the gallbladder and bile vessels). The pain is accompanied by a feeling of heaviness in the liver and radiates under the right scapula or the right side of the neck. Often, this results in nausea or even vomiting of bile, flatulence, diarrhea, or vice versa, and constipation. Scope of the right hypochondrium at palpation is moderately painful, the liver may be increased in size.
When biliary dyskinesia on the hyperkinetic type due to excessive contraction of smooth muscles of the pain much more intense, there is a seizure and giving the right shoulder blade or shoulder. Stomach in the right upper quadrant sharp pain. Attack may also be accompanied by nausea and vomiting, but the pain quite easily eliminated with taking antispasmodics (eg, no-shpy). The liver is not increased. Provoke an attack can physical overload, fatty foods, nervous stress. Outside attack patients feel quite well.
Of course, for an accurate diagnosis of clinical signs alone are not enough, since similar symptoms may indicate inflammation in the liver or gall bladder. To confirm the diagnosis need accurate laboratory data. Such information can provide an ultrasound study, which will inform about the state of the gall bladder and ducts, and the extent of their cross-country (ie there are no stones at them as one of the reasons for violations of the outflow of bile), and much more. A good method of diagnosis is also X-ray study of the biliary (biliary) system.
In the treatment of biliary dyskinesia plays an important role proper nutrition: do not abuse the roasted, sharp, smoked dishes. Eating better in small quantities, but often, at least 4 - 5 times a day. If there is a hyperkinetic type of psoriasis, you can remove the pain attack Spazmalgon, baralgin but-shpoy. Such patients should be taken in order to avoid provoking the attack. For example, in order to avoid disturbances of nerve to take bromides, valerian preparations, etc. In hypokinetic dyskinesia on the type of prescribed drugs cholagogue: sorbitol, mannitol, magnesium.If any sort of biliary dyskinesia contraindicated excessive exercise.